Drinking Water Standards & Testing
Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC)
- Charlotte Water must analyze first for total coliform because this test is faster to produce results. Any time that a sample is positive for total coliform, the same sample must be analyzed for either fecal coliform or E. coli.
Disinfection Byproducts (DBP)
Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM)
Trihalomethanes occur when naturally occurring organic and inorganic materials in the water react with the disinfectants. THM levels are influenced by temperature, pH, and water age primarily. TTHM is reported as the Locational Running Annual Average or LRAA.
Haloacetic Acids (HAA5)
Barium is used in making a wide variety of electronic components, in metal alloys, bleaches, dyes, fireworks, ceramics, and glass. In particular, it is used in well drilling operations where it is directly released into the ground.
Cadmium is used primarily for metal plating and coating operations, including transportation equipment, machinery and baking enamels, photography, and television phosphors. It can also be found in batteries.
Fluoride is a mineral that occurs naturally in virtually all waters. Fluoride has also been proven to promote oral health. on the recommendation of the American Dental Association, Charlotte Water adds fluoride to drinking water so that the target concentration is 0.7 mg/L or less than 1 part per million.
Iron is naturally occurring. It is also considered a Secondary Drinking Water contaminant to assist in managing drinking water for taste, color, or odor. It is not considered a human health risk but may indicate at certain levels undesirable water for customers.
Lead is naturally occurring but can also be found in plumbing as pipe material and as a component of solder. Lead was banned in 1986 from being installed in public water systems or any plumbing providing water for human consumption connected to a public water system. In 1991, the EPA established a maximum contaminant level goal of zero for lead in drinking water.
Ammonia as Nitrogen
Hardness (by calculation) as Calcium Carbonate
Hardness in drinking water is caused by two nontoxic chemicals-the minerals calcium and magnesium. If either of these minerals is present in your water in substantial amounts, the water is said to be hard, because making a lather or suds for washing is hard (difficult) to do. Water containing little calcium or magnesium is called soft water.
Benzene is formed through natural processes, such as volcanoes and forest fires. It is also formed from industrial processes. Benzene is also found in crude oil, dry-cleaning solvents, gasoline, and cigarette smoke.
Most carbon tetrachloride is used to make chlorofluorocarbon propellants and refrigerants, though this has been declining steadily. It has also been used as a dry cleaning agent and fire extinguisher; in making nylons; as a solvent for rubber cement, soaps, insecticides, etc.
Chlorobenzene is used in the manufacture of other organic chemicals, dyestuffs, and insecticides. It is also used a solvent for adhesives, drugs, rubber, paints, and dry cleaning.
The greatest use of 1,2-dichloroethane is in making chemicals involved in plastics, rubber, and synthetic textile fibers.
Virtually all 1,1-dichloroethylene is used in making adhesives, synthetic fibers, refrigerants, food packaging and coating resins such as the saran types.
It is used to make other organic chemicals. It is also used in making lead-free gasoline, paper coating, soil fumigant for nematodes, and insecticide for stored grain.
Vinyl chloride is used in the manufacture of numerous products in building construction, automotive industry, electrical wire insulation, and cables, piping, industrial and household equipment, medical supplies, and is depended upon heavily by the rubber, paper, and glass industries.